A custom hardware classifier for bruised apple detection in hyperspectral images

M. Figueroa and Jorge E. Pezoa


We present a custom digital architecture for bruised apple classification using hyperspectral images in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum. The algorithm classifies each pixel in an image into one of three classes: bruised, non-bruised, and background. We extract two 5-element feature vectors for each pixel using only 10 out of the 236 spectral bands provided by the hyperspectral camera, thereby greatly reducing both the requirements of the imager and the computational complexity of the algorithm. We then use two linear-kernel support vector machine (SVM) to classify each pixel. Each SVM was trained with 504 windows of size 17×17-pixel taken from 14 hyperspectral images of 320×320 pixels each, for each class. The architecture then computes the percentage of bruised pixels in each apple in order to adequately classify the fruit. We implemented the architecture on a Xilinx Zynq Z-7010 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and tested it on images from a NIR N17E push-broom camera with a frame rate of 25 fps, a band-pixel rate of 1.888 MHz, and 236 spectral bands between 900 and 1700 nanometers in laboratory conditions. Using 28-bit fixed-point arithmetic, the circuit accurately discriminates 95.2% of the pixels corresponding to an apple, 81% of the pixels corresponding to a bruised apple, and 96.4% of the background. With the default threshold settings, the highest false positive (FP) for a bruised apple is 18.7%. The circuit operates at the native frame rate of the camera, consumes 67 mW of dynamic power, and uses less than 10% of the logic resources on the FPGA. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1117/12.2188578