Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network

G. Carvacho, Jaime Cariñe, Gabriel Saavedra Mondaca, A. Cuevas, Felipe Toledo, M. Figueroa, A. Cabello, Jan-Ake Larsson, P. Matalloni, G. Lima and G. B. Xavier


Device-independent quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line of sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepción in Chile. Remarkably, this is the first Bell violation with spatially separated parties that is free of the postselection loophole, which affected all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure