Impact of Raman Scattered Noise from Multiple Telecom Channels on Fiber-Optic Quantum Key Distribution Systems

T. Ferreira da Silva, G. B. Xavier, G. P. Temporao and J. P. von der Weid


In this paper, we analyze the impact of the sponta- neous Raman scattered noise generated from multiple optical clas- sical channels on a single quantum key distribution channel, all within the telecom C-band. We experimentally measure the noise generated from up to 14 continuous-wave laser sources with differ- ent wavelengths using the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) standard, in both propagation directions in respect to the QKD channel, over different standard SMF-28 fiber lengths. We then simulate the expected secure key generation rate for a decoy- states-based system as a function of distance under the presence of simultaneous telecom traffic with different modulation techniques, and show a severe penalty growing with the number of classical channels present. Our results show that, for in-band coexistence, the telecom channels should be distributed as close as possible from the quantum channel to avoid the Raman noise peaks. Operation far from the zero dispersion wavelength of the fiber is also benefi- cial as it greatly reduces the generation of four-wave mixing inside the quantum channel. Furthermore, narrow spectral filtering on the quantum channels is required due to the harsh limitations of performing QKD under real telecom environments, with the quan- tum and several classical channels coexisting in the same ITU-T C-band.